What is the COP and the CMP?
The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conferences of the Parties) (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP); also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin.
As of today there are 197 Parties to the Convention (196 States and the European Union) including Palestine who joined in March 2016.
What is COP21 – CMP11?
France hosted and chaired the twenty-first Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21 / CMP11), also known as Paris 2015, from 30 November to 11 December. This was a crucial date, concluding in a new international climate agreement applicable to all countries and called the "Paris Agreement." This agreement aims to keep warming below the 2 ° C limit on Pre-industrial levels (1880-1899), in order to reduce CO2 emissions by 50 per cent by 2050 and by 100 per cent by 2100.
The text of the Paris Agreement was approved on December 12, 2015 by 195 countries, France played a starring role in giving such a transcendental agreement, achieving the consensus of all countries within the framework of the United Nations and the Union Leaders in the fight against climate change. The aim is to keep global warming below 2 ° C by looking at a reduction of 1.5 ° C, explicitly mentioned in the Paris Agreement.
Ratification of the Paris Agreement
In order to enter into force, the Paris Agreement, adopted on December 12, 2015 in Paris, had to be ratified by at least 55 Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) accounting for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
On September 21, 2016, on the sidelines of the 71st UN General Assembly, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon invited the Parties to a special event in New York in order to fast-track the ratification of the Agreement. Up to now, 31 countries deposited their instruments of ratification crossing the first threshold of 55 Parties.
The second threshold of 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions required for this entry into force was crossed on October 5, 2016, with the deposit at the United Nations of the instruments of ratification by the European Union, which counts as 1 party, along with seven of its member states namely Hungary, France, Slovakia, Austria, Malta, Portugal and Germany in addition to Nepal.
Thirty days later, on November 2016, the Paris Agreement came into force on the eve of the 22nd Conference of the Parties (COP22) to the UNFCCC.
What is COP22 – CMP12?
The 22nd Session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP22) will be held in Marrakech, November 7 to 18, 2016.
COP22 will take over the reins from COP21 during which important progress was made. It will focus on action items in order to achieve the priorities of The Paris Agreement, especially related to adaptation, transparency, technology transfer, mitigation, capacity building and loss and damages.
For Salaheddine Mezouar, President of COP22, this conference is an “opportunity to make the voices of the most vulnerable countries to climate change heard, in particular African countries and island states. It is urgent to act on these issues linked to stability and security,” he declared. COP22 will be one of action.